Zumpano MP (2002) Three dimensional form changes during late fetal growth (137-157 gestational days) in the pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) craniofacial complex: An application using three dimensional coordinate data and finite element scaling analysis. Anatomical Record 267(4):307-320

    Form changes within the fetal pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) craniofacial complex was documented using finite element scaling analysis and three-dimensional coordinate data for 35 craniofacial landmarks. Coordinate data were digitized from 3D reconstructions of computed tomographic images and 2D axial slices. Twenty-two fetal pigtailed macaques ranging in age from 137 to 157 gestational days were included and birth for this species is estimated at 170 gestational days. The null hypothesis that the craniofacial complex grows with isometry during late fetal growth of the craniofacial complex was tested (p < 0.05) and the prediction that morphological change along an anteroposterior axis dominates late fetal growth was also investigated. The null hypothesis was rejected, indicating that allometric growth is present during late fetal growth. Growth along an anteroposterior axis was localized in the palate and mandible. The neurocranium grows along a superoinferior axis while the neurofacial junction displays growth along both anteroposterior and superoinferior axes. Mediolateral changes are localized between asterions, the external auditory meati, and maxillary and mandibular alveolar points. Finally, a three-dimensional model of craniofacial growth for this species was created, localizing size and shape changes that occur during late fetal growth for each of the 35 craniofacial landmarks defined in this study.

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Landmarks and 3D wire-frame model of the fetal craniofacial complex in the pigtailed macaque.